Scientists Simplifying Science


Ananda Ghosh

Ananda Ghosh has 19 articles published.

The Battle of Alzheimer’s- What lies ahead

in That Makes Sense/Uncategorized by

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) probably the last frontier of man’s battle with diseases, is a progressive brain disorder that damages and eventually destroys our brain cells leading to memory loss and a gradual decline in other brain functions. The Alzheimer’s Association states that every 71 seconds someone in the US develops Alzheimer’s and by 2050 it’ll be every 33 seconds. By 2050 nearly million people will be affected by the disease that will create an economic burden running to a trillion dollars. Clearly, the world stands amidst an epidemic, and this is not new news.

A Very Brief History of AD

Dr. Alois Alzheimer first described the disease in 1906 based on his observation of a patient at the Frankfurt Asylum whose behavioral symptoms and loss of short term memory became his obsession for the next several years. By 1910 Emil Kraepelin a German psychiatrist named the disease as Alzheimer’s disease in the eight edition of his book called Psychiatrie. It took another 60 years for the US Congress to establish the National Institute of Aging (NIA) as a primary federal agency to fund the research on the disease. The year 1983 saw the month of November being designated as a national Alzheimer’s Disease month. By 1984 beta-amyloid (Abeta) – a prime suspect in triggering the disease was identified by George Glenner and Caine Wong eventually leading to the beta-amyloid hypothesis –the basis of several recent clinical trials. Tau-the microtubule-associated protein was identified in 1986. The year 1987 saw two breakthroughs, 1. The identification of the first gene on chromosome 21 that codes for the amyloid precursor protein (APP). 2. The clinical trial of tacrine, the first drug that targeted the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s Association, NIA, and Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical company (Pfizer) collaborated to run the trial. Since then there have been numerous clinical trials, and almost every one of them has failed to find the cure for the disease.

Next Generation Drugs of AD

Next Generation Drugs that are being tested now are mostly based on the beta-amyloid hypothesis. The fundamental reasoning behind the hypothesis is based on the gene mutations responsible for the synthesis of beta-amyloid that have been associated with early, onset, familial AD. The 42-mer peptide derived from the Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a protein thought to be involved in synapse formation, and neuronal cell adhesion is responsible for brain amyloid plaques-the pathological hallmarks of the AD. Therefore, the strategies to defeat the disease are now based on immunotherapy (monoclonal antibodies, therapeutic vaccines), secretase (enzymes that can cleave APP) inhibitors and aggregation inhibitors.

The second camp of believers in the war against the AD, however, believes that the neurofibrillary tangles composed of an abnormally high phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein called tau are a better target to tackle the disease. Among the companies that have significantly invested in this approach are Merck, Biogen, and Roche.

The Monoclonal Antibody Trials

Both approaches have met with significant setbacks and failures. The latest to fail is Lilly’s Solanezumab. The result from the EXPEDITION3 trial of Solanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that has been designed to clear soluble Abeta has just been published in the New England Journal of Medicine a week ago. Sadly, the trial failed to replicate the findings from an earlier trial where secondary analyses had shown a modest effect in slowing the cognitive decline. The current trial was a double-blind placebo control that involved patients with mild dementia due to AD (Mini-Mental State Examination of 20-26). The results of the primary outcome measure (ADAS-cog14) showed no significant difference between the treated and the untreated (placebo group) in reducing the cognitive decline in the patients.

The study hinted that the administered dose of Solanezumab might not have been sufficient to reduce the deposited cerebral amyloid, neuronal atrophy or other associated pathology of the disease. The drug penetration in the CNS ranged from 0.1% to 0.3% of the plasma level, that may be too low to produce a clinically meaningful effect. Secondly, even though the drug cleared more than 90% of the free plasma Abeta, the florbetapir PET imaging data suggested that the antibody failed to reduce the fibrillar amyloid burden in the patients. Though the study puts a yet another dent in the amyloid hypothesis, it pins our hope on the two ongoing Phase III trials with Biogen’s Aducanumab known as ENGAGE and EMERGE for reasons that are specified below.

Biogen’s study (A 2016 double-blind placebo-controlled phase Ib PRIME study that was reported in Nature on Sep 2016) is based on a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the pathological Abeta aggregates involving patients with mild dementia. Unlike Solanezumab, the penetration of Aducanumab through the blood-brain barrier was reported to be 1.3% (nearly tenfold more). The drug based on the florbetapir PET imaging test showed a reduction in the Abeta plaques in both dose and time-dependent manner. Clinical assessment of the study even though exploratory (that is the study was not powered to detect clinical change) showed a dose-dependent slowing of clinical progression at one year. On Nov 2017 Biogen released their result from their long-term extension of the ongoing Phase Ib study of the Aducanumab that showed a continued reduction of the amyloid plaque and suggested benefit on the clinical decline for the patients in Phase Ib. Analysts have vetted that Biogen’s Aducanumab is perhaps the best anti-amyloid antibody currently available with more than 50% chance of success. Only time will tell whether Aducanumab will be able to achieve the efficacy required to bring a possible drug to the market. For now, the world has to wait.

The Road Ahead

However, the pursuit to find a new and diverse target continues and that itself is hope for millions of families globally. The US federal Government’s effort through National Institute of Health (NIH) has been persistent in funding the disease area, and the share of funding has increased in several folds compared to other disease areas in recent years. The funding spree has created a tsunami of information about the disease process both macroscopically and at a molecular level. Just a search on “Alzheimer’s Disease” at the clinical shows more than 200 active trials that are currently running. The target repertoire includes Abeta to cholinergic neurons to kinases to lipid and glucose metabolism to growth factors to protein homeostasis to the biology of mitochondria, etc. At par with oncology, AD therapy is seeing a trend towards precision medicine, mostly because of our better understanding of the genes and genetic pathways involved in the disease process today.

The war against neurodegeneration has recently seen an encouragement from venture funding too (This speaks a lot about the health our biotech venture ecosystem). LifesciVc remarked a 40% increase in the central nervous system (CNS) venture funding over the last 5 years. There have been several venture-backed neuro focused startups that have promising pipelines. The star among them is, of course, Denali which closed a 1.2 billion dollar valuation last year. Some of the other startups that are worth looking forward to are Cortexyme, Cerevance, Alzheon, Voyager, Yumanity to name a few.


Even though the future of drug discovery in the AD seems uncertain but so was the journey to the moon. I think tomorrow will be exciting and someone from this generation will write how through collective efforts, the battle of Alzheimer’s was won in the coming decades. I sincerely wish I can read that book in my lifetime.









Author: Ananda Ghosh


Acknowledgement: The blog resulted from a discussion with Sadhana Chitale, PhD, Director, Life Sciences, NYU Technology Ventures and Partnerships over an article on Alzheimer’s research.

Editor: Sadhana Chitale, PhD

Image: The Persistence of Memory, Salvador Dali, 1931

Obsession & Opinions Cartoons: Manasi Pethe, Ph.D.  San Diego

The contents of Club SciWri are the copyright of PhD Career Support Group for STEM PhDs (A US Non-Profit 501(c)3, PhDCSG is an initiative of the alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The primary aim of this group is to build a NETWORK among scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs).

This work by Club SciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



2018-The year of glass half full

in That Makes Sense by

I am not a TIME fan in any sense. However, the last issue of TIME caught my attention. The cover story was named “The Optimist,” edited by Warren Buffet, Bill Gates, Malala Yousafzai and other prominent leaders of the world. Their editorial discussed the positive changes the world is seeing despite all the negativity which surround us today.

The issue begins with a cover story of six children in Ethiopia who just celebrated their fifth birthday when compared to 30 years ago when 1 in 5 children did not survive to see this world. Malala Yousafzai narrated how Malala fund is helping to recruit female teachers in Afghanistan to work in rural schools. How in Nigeria, it helps run mentorship club to help girl resist family pressure to drop out from schools or early marriage. In Lebanon, they are developing e-learning programs to teach STEM skills to Syrian refugee girls. Budd Haeberlein from Biogen showed her optimism about finding a cure for Alzheimer’s in the near future. Bill Gates talked about his foundation’s effort to bring the death rate from 12 million a year in the 1990s to 5 million a year in 2017, and the goal is to bring this to half by 2030. If you want to help several such initiatives please go ahead and donate to UNICEF.

In the same issue, there is a column dedicated to Dr. Mathew Varghese of Delhi’s St. Stephens Hospital near Tis Hazari. Dr. Varghese, an orthopedic surgeon by training, has spent a significant part of his career going from house to house in Northern India trying to study the victims of the Polio in their social context. India has practically eradicated Polio with the number of cases reported being zero since 2011. An article in Guardian dedicated to Dr. Varghese describes him as “India’s polio pioneer works to put himself out of a job”. Dr. Varghese now runs an organization in nearly 29 states which teach medical students to understand the social context of the patients concerning the disease.

In CSG too, we got to know the incredible story of Govinda Upadhyay of LED Safari,
thanks to #CSGInsta, who dropped out of his Ph.D. to work on his startup to solve an unmet need in India-electricity. Washington Post revealed that 1.3 billion people in India remain without power. The government relies on fossil fuel to meet the energy demand which means a nearly three-fold increase in the greenhouse emission by 2030. What Upadhyay realized was that the problem was not with the limited resources but the knowledge or training to repair electrical equipment in this part of the world. He came up with a solar kit to teach kids how to use solar energy to create electricity using basic training modules. He has taken his ideas now to other African countries like Tanzania and Kenya where children can learn about solar energy and technology. The reason I liked Upadhyay’s story was it somehow is in tune with CSG’s core mission albeit looking at a different problem. We believe there are so many of us who have an inherent talent to make a mark in the world or contribute positively in their unique way and what prevents many from reaching that stage is “awareness and education”. It’s not the formal education it is more than that. If we empower this massive chunk of human resource who are disillusioned about how their education and training fits in the rapidly evolving job market, we can create several such leaders as Upadhyay (at least that is our hope).

In an article from the recently published December issue of New Yorker, Richard Haas, an American diplomat was quoted, referring to the fact that the world is entering an era without obvious leadership. However, to me, I think the new world is exploding with leaders who have been inspired to solve some of the most challenging questions of our times, and we don’t necessarily have to wait for political leaders to take in charge of our fate. As long as there are men and women who are aware of the problems that surround us and finds out a way to solve them howsoever small the problem may be and howsoever small a community the solution helps, our future in this planet looks bright.

PS: If you know people who are making small impacts in the world, let us know their story. Write to me at

References: (Washington Post)

Photograph Courtesy:

(Wikimedia Commons)

Children at a vaccinations clinic near Sululta, Ethiopia, May 2012

Edited by : Mahamaya Bhattacharyya

Attribution: Yasmin Abubeker/DFID

Obsession & Opinions Cover Image: Manasi Pethe, Ph.D.  San Diego

The contents of Club SciWri are the copyright of PhD Career Support Group for STEM PhDs (A US Non-Profit 501(c)3, PhDCSG is an initiative of the alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The primary aim of this group is to build a NETWORK among scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs).

This work by Club SciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

The Genesis of PhD Career Support Group for STEM PhDs

in ClubSciWri by

This is the story of when and why it all began for CSG before we opened the group for members beyond campus of IISc……

January, 2016: It is great to write about the PhD Career Support group which was born out of a necessity to help large numbers PhDs who were coming out from the Indian Institute of Science to develop their career in a foreign land. Embarking on a journey in a foreign land brings with itself, different problems which either we are unaware of or don’t have the skills or knowledge to work our way through. Ever since its inception on July 22nd (2015), this group  has grown in its membership from 40 to 1500 and continues to grow.

Why did we have a forum like this to begin with? Some of us realized that the best thing, which happened in those 400 acres of lush green campus, was the bright and brilliant group of friends we had. In Bangalore if we ever had a problem and at whatever time of day it was, we could use our vast network of friends and solve almost all the problems. One of the things, which we missed dearly, in fact very dearly, was this “access” to our group of friends. I mean they were there, but as one graduated from the Institute, they not only got scattered, but the bonding that happened because of the campus wall was no longer there. What remained was the nostalgia which Gulzar penned quite brilliantly in Urdu “Chod aayein hum woh Galiya” (Those streets got left behind)

The other thing that we realized was how ill equipped PhDs from IISc were if they had to think about a career outside science. Although most IISc PhDs would love to spend their entire life in Science, the present funding scenario with too many graduates in Biotechnology or other natural sciences have created a very unstable future for the PhDs. We saw top US universities like Yale, Cornell, NYU, Columbia have a very aggressive career counseling offices working day and night for PhDs to help them from getting disillusioned with failure to secure tenure-track positions. Unfortunately, IISc is still way behind these programs resulting in hundreds of PhDs with no apparent direction to take if their academic career didn’t take off. So one objective of the forum was to crowd source ideas and knowledge about how the real world works and what needs to be changed if one has to seek a job outside academia.

We also realized that the alumni network is not well connected. There is for sure gap between senior well-established IIScians with the current students or fresh PhDs and postdocs. The alumni network is no match with IITs or even some top undergraduate colleges of India, for example, St. Stephens Delhi or St. Xavier’s Bombay. For an IIScian to compete with US PhDs, one needs to have an excellent network within the organization in which they are applying. From our experience and from others we heard that it was a pain to network resume in the company. However, if you search LinkedIn for IIScians, you would invariably see IIScians in those companies. The question was WHY THEN THE CONCEPT OF ALUMNI NETWORK not working? HOW TO REACH OUT TO SENIOR IIScians and establish a credibility of the candidacy?

The answer was to bring in the alumni in an interactive forum where they could see and talk to each other in spite of the fact that they had never been on the same time frame in IISc. The idea was to bring the alumni and the current students into constructive discussions and to share and support career opportunities. So creating an interactive forum was like staying in the same hostel complex that allows you to knock the door of your friends at your leisure when you are in trouble.

The last six months have been a tremendous success. We launched several initiatives and just like scientific research; some got started some failed. However, the passion to be in touch with IIScians remains unchallenged. Recently we have started a Blog called Club SciWri ( which will be the window to the world for the Career Support Group. We will not only post scientific achievements of IIScians/ other Indian Scientists but will also post discussions in the forum by IIScians and other PhDs outside IISc. Never before we had thought that we will live in a virtual world of IISc after we had left Bangalore and Career Support Group just gave us back that feeling in this foreign land. We now interact with at least 1500 IIScians almost on a daily basis. Isn’t it amazing? Also, the forum immediately removed the age barrier.

With this introduction, we end here.

Ananda Ghosh & Abhinav Dey

Ananda Ghosh and Abhinav Dey are the co-founders of PhD Career Support Group.

This story was previously published in the IISc AANA Newsletter.

Featured image: Pixabay

Face to Face with Dr. Senthil Arumugam

in Face à Face by

As a part of SciWri’s effort to interview young academicians, scientists, PhDs beyond academia, entrepreneurs, and social scientists to understand their career paths, their interests, and their vision, we interviewed Dr. Senthil Arumugam (SA), group leader at the Single Molecule Science Node of the University of New South Wales, Australia. Senthil talks about his passion for Biology and his journey from being wanting to become an astronaut to his present obsession with single molecules. 

 AG: How do you describe yourself to others?

(Senthil) SA: I am a microscopist-biologist who enjoys learning the best techniques and applying them to real world biological questions. Throughout my formal education, I have either built or applied specialist microscopy techniques to problems ranging from neuroscience, bacterial biology or eukaryotic biology, during which, I also learned about the length and breadth of interesting biological problems.

AG: Where and how exactly your academic journey started?

SA: I think I was always interested in science. I do not remember when I started liking science, but I do remember wanting to be an astronaut. It stemmed from breaking my father’s old Russian cameras for the lenses in it, and made a telescope to explore space. That made me curious about what is out there, who we are, what is life. I think this is where I got interested in science and learning about things around me. Meanwhile, there was a physics teacher in my 11th class, Mr. Venugopal, who, on his first day at the job, picked up the text book, waved it at us, and asked one question – Why are we studying all this? That episode pretty much helped me work wilfully towards becoming a scientist. This made me take up Bachelor of Science, where I came across another special teacher, Dr. Shashi Pandya. She used to teach organic chemistry, and she started a small research lab, where we would try new chemical synthesis pathways. She encouraged me to apply for summer research fellowship at the Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS), Bangalore, India. I spent 2 months at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India, in the inorganic chemistry department, where I was exposed to how research is performed, designing experiments based on ideas explored in past literature, and the idea that text books are made out of real research (as silly as it might sound, a lot of students do not have the exposure at the undergrad level in India). The stint at IISc also exposed me to the premier research institutes in India – IISc, JNCASR, TIFR, etc. I applied to all of these places for my masters and got selected to pursue my Master at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Here, I worked in the lab of Dr. Sudipta Maiti (, where I could build a strong base in microscopy that would help me in future to explore life below few microns (the other unseen space).

AG: You went to Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to pursue your Masters. Why did you choose to go to TIFR?

SA: Though I was interested in continuing science, I had little idea about doing a Ph.D. abroad, I did not have any clue when I came to TIFR, about who funds your Ph.D., how can one go abroad for doing a Ph.D., what should one do to pursue Ph.D. TIFR being a very dynamic place, and being well-informed and exposed to world science, provided me with plenty of advice and help to apply for various Ph.D. positions.

I was clear I wanted to go to an optics + biology lab. I applied to plenty of universities in the USA, but was unsuccessful. Meanwhile, a colleague of mine, who had visited MPI-CBG Dresden, Germany, told me that it looked like Dresden was the place for me because of the many microscopy based labs there. I applied, got called for interviews, went there, and liked the lab of Petra Schwille (, whose lab was essentially based on applications of fluorescence methods to biology to understand biological phenomena. I gladly accepted it, knowing the fact that there were plenty of optics and microscopy, but truth be told I had no clue about the biological problems that I would address. I don’t think I analyzed so much in depth about institute rankings, lab rankings or whatsoever other metrics may be.

AG: Can you share with us some moments from your PhDs?

SA: I think the best moment was when one of my projects got accepted and made it across to a biology journal. Owing to its interdisciplinary approach it was a struggle to get it accepted, but I am glad it saw the light at the end of the tunnel. That was also my first lead author manuscript. I think it boosted my confidence and made me pursue more independent ideas.

The City of Dresden, Germany

AG: Tell us something about your postdoc and why and how did you chose your postdoc lab/mentor?

SA: By the end of my Ph.D., I was quite confident of my microscopy skills, and the ability to pick up new techniques. I decided to look for biological problems. At the same time, I was wary of joining a pure biology lab. I also wanted to stay on Europe as my wife was pursuing her Ph.D. in Germany. I narrowed down my search to Paris, because of the highly interdisciplinary nature of the institutes and their exciting contributions that I had followed. I joined as a joint-post doc between the labs of Patricia Bassereau and Ludger Johannes ( Patricia’s lab was a more quantitative, physics oriented lab, and Ludger’s was a traditional biology lab a perfect example of an interdisciplinary collaboration. Patricia’s lab was also focused on membrane physics while Ludger’s on endocytic processes. My Ph.D. experience in Petra’s lab had acquainted me with model membrane systems, and a lot of membrane biophysics owing to expert colleagues in the lab with whom I frequently chatted in the lab and over beers. Therefore, I thought I could put together biology, optics, and membrane physics and do interesting stuff here. Being the bridge between the physics and the biology department here, I could learn a lot in good detail from both the fields. At the same time, Curie institute being in Paris made my monthly commutes to Dresden and back easier.

The mountains where I would occasionally hike

AG: What were the most memorable postdoc moment?

SA: While in Ludger’s lab, I was trying to image endosomal sorting dynamics using spinning disc microscopes. I had tried pretty hard with all possible tricks and variations. I did manage to capture some events but knew this could never be high-throughput given the time resolution, photo-bleaching and the fast dynamics of the endosomal system. This was when Eric Betzig’s invention – the lattice light-sheet microscope was published around October 2014. I desperately wanted to get my hands on this microscope. With some efforts from my side and other non-related events between the labs of Tomas Kirchhausen and Ludger, I was on a flight to Boston, to visit Tomas Kirchhausen’s lab ( The first time I imaged on this microscope and saw the dynamics of endocytosis and vesicles in live cells that I could only imagine before, I knew I had to get this as a weapon in my arsenal.

I think I had the same nervousness and insecurities that everyone has towards the end of post-doc when you look at the job market, and everything seems uphill. This was also the time when I felt I had to be out and independent soon. Most of my experiments were strictly dictated by Ludger, and my papers from my post-doc seemed like they would take forever to get published. I thought it was either now or never.

A single cell image generated from the lattice light sheet imaging showing clathrin coated pits, its tracking and shigatoxin (in blue). 


AG: How did you cope with life outside India? What were you doing beyond labs?

SA: I do not think I felt any pressure living outside India. I had a fantastic time in Dresden. It’s a very pleasant city with the right balance of architecture, open fields, and beautiful mountains to hike around. Summers were spent playing ultimate Frisbee and hiking on the Sächsische Schweiz, winters enjoying the snow, ice skating, cross country skiing. I had fantastic friends from all over Europe and other places. Being centrally located in Europe allowed us also to travel and explore EU countries.

During my stay in Paris, most of my time was spent traveling – first between Paris and Dresden, and then between Paris-Barcelona-Boston. When not traveling, beyond the lab, life mostly extended to either bars or classical Parisian riverside picnics, outings, travels.

AG: How was the academic job hunting process? When did you start planning? What were the critical factors that helped you during the job search?

SA: I had no immediate plans to search for academic jobs when I moved to Paris. I thought I might do another post-doc or see how it goes. However, the fact that I did not have the kind of independence to do what I wanted to, with my ideas – a freedom I was spoilt with in my Ph.D. lab, really made me yearn for it. At the same time, frequent traveling to different institutes during my post-doc exposed me to various researchers. I met with and discussed with a lot of researchers between Paris, Barcelona, and Boston where I was doing microscopy experiments for my post-doc projects. This exposed me to a variety of projects in detail and helped me shape ideas as well gave confidence to my ideas. At one point, I attended three conferences, ranging from developmental biology to computational biology in tandem, just because I wanted to know what interesting biological problems are out there. All the visits, conferences, and conversations expanded my knowledge base tremendously, exposed me to a variety of biological questions, technical advancements, and available resources, which proved to be a feeding ground for me to generate new ideas, think creatively using the expanded base of information to solve biological questions.

Above everything, the fact that I was desperate for conducting independent research and the confidence that I was ready for it drove me. I started applying/ looking for jobs at the end of two years into my postdoc. I considered India primarily in the beginning. I applied for Young Investigator’s meeting but did not receive a positive response. I did go around visiting and giving talks in institutes in India whenever I was on vacation, and I was repeatedly told I needed more experience or more papers. At the same time, talking to various researchers, I realized it is difficult to get the kind of funds I would like to have to bring cutting edge microscopy technologies in India. Thus, I shifted my focus to investment developed countries where I could execute the kind of work I want to do, particularly in  in Germany, Singapore, and Australia.

AG: What do you think is the most imp step you took for cracking academic job market?

SA: I think I inadvertently played on my strengths of microscopy and analysis. Along the way, I made sure I had the right balance to enrich myself with the knowledge of biology and various interesting questions in biology so that I could pick problems that interest me and use my strengths to answer it. To crack the job market, one of the essential requirements is to put forward a solid original thread of a project idea that is strongly supported by your training, research experiences, publications, etc. that are convincing a committee to trust you with carrying out the project. I started early on this, read a lot of papers, generated ideas that interested me, discussed with plenty of very good friends – old and new from TIFR to Curie, helped me shape it. Technology and science go hand in hand and developments often jump by leaps within a decade i.e., within the range of time from starting a Ph.D. to finishing a post-doc. I happened to be lucky to end up in a lab where I could convince the lab head to fund my trips and travel to various institutes to learn advanced microscopy technologies. While technology is not solely the basis on which one is recruited, it is better to be prepared for a balanced approach towards science, as well as using your strengths being part of the academic supply chain. You need to weave your path through the intertwined maze of technology requirements by your lab, the institutes, your expertise that is a commodity and your research interests that should be sharpened and developed in parallel.

AG: Now that you are a PI, what has been your experience so far?

SA: It has been amazing so far. I am enjoying the freedom to realize my ideas and the ability to reasonably fund my ideas. I have got a fantastic post-doc who is very enthusiastic and extremely easy to work with and has been very helpful in starting up the lab. I am looking forward to the first experiments from the lab once my microscope is built.

AG: As a young PI what are the challenges and what support system do you get?

SA: I think one of the biggest challenges is that most students and post-docs have little understanding of the financial and management aspect of running a lab. You suddenly see a million dollars at your disposal. Fortunately, I could talk to a lot of friends who had just established labs and got some useful inputs, project your expenses early, buy the biggest necessary equipment first, go a bit slow – don’t fall into the shopping spree trap, balance people, and equipment, etc. The senior colleagues in the institute here have been helpful in sharing their lab running costs and their strategies; that help me devise my own suited to my lab’s requirement.

Cell lines, plasmids, etc. form an important part of a biological research lab. Often when you switch projects, collecting these can be a task. While some people are really benevolent with sharing resources, some are not. Be prepared to do your homework to overcome these hurdles.

AG: Whats your idea of mentoring in today’s academia? Will you be open to people who want to transition out of bench work?

SA: I am largely inexperienced in mentoring and go really with my intuition and feeling of what is right. I do take feedbacks from my student and try to have a regular co-worker relationship like I would if I was a post-doc along with them. It’s been only three months, and I find this, as of now, comfortable.

I am certainly for people transitioning out to alternative careers. An academic position is not the final destination of doing science. In a steady state, only about 10-15% can move to a post-doctoral position and even lesser from a post-doc to a junior faculty position. It is clearly a pyramid, and it’s not going to change anytime soon. I would advise to fight it out early on in your career if you are very much passionate adamant on a faculty position. If you do not succeed, you may be better off saving yourself some time to explore plenty of options. I was prepared to look for something else if an academic position hadn’t come through after the first post-doc. The chances of getting a faculty position only drop after that unless a miracle of the high impact magazine or journal article comes out. Explore alternative career options. Build expertise on things that interest you.

There are various possibilities where your training can be put to use while excluding a faculty position – the most exciting of them in my opinions are entrepreneurial ventures, scientific animation and illustration services (Complex ideas need to be conveyed to the academic community as well as the general public. Experts in understanding scientific details and ideas as well as capabilities of portraying them using animations, illustrations will be increasingly in demand), Analysists (big-data, image processing, coders) will be in demand considering the advent of cutting edge technologies in various fields. These secondary employments that come out of novel demands are largely under-utilized. At the same time, the academic institutions also need to encourage and create these positions. One may think of a transition help system where specialized training (for e.g. creating animations) is given to students willing to transition out while being related to the academia.

AG: Finally, what will be your suggestions to PhDs who are preparing themselves for an academic position?

SA: If you are absolutely serious about an academic career, explore ideas and technologies; try to go beyond your comfort zone. Talk to a variety of people, discuss science, ideas. It broadens your mind regarding what you can understand, how much can you relate and build cross bridges that are unique. Expect to do more and beyond regular reading, experiments and writing manuscripts as you go from Ph.D. to post-doc and post-doc to an independent position. Strike early when you can leverage off your most recent papers and the younger age. Put time and effort to write a project proposal that is rich in ideas, novelty, and technology if that’s your expertise. Remember it is not a post-doctoral project proposal for a single person for the next two-three years. Put together your ideas, and put up a mature project proposal that a lab would be working on. A good estimate is a project with work and experiments requiring about three Ph.D. or post-docs for the next 2 – 3 years. You are also required to be on a variety of committees that demand a broad variety of knowledge base. Keep yourself updating about exciting discoveries, techniques, and developments.

Dr. Senthil Arumugam is a group leader at the Single Molecule Science Node of the University of New South Wales since September 2016. His lab focuses on intracellular trafficking in diseases and develops and uses cutting edge imaging and analysis techniques for cell biology. He obtained his masters from TIFR, Mumbai and PhD from Technical University of Dresden/ MPI-CBG.  He then did a post-doc at the Curie Institute in Paris where he was also a recipient of the Pierre Gilles de Gennes fellowship. More about his lab can be found on


Editor: Ananda Ghosh (AG)

I work at the NYU Office of Industrial Liaison to make sure that NYU innovations are developed beyond bench and ultimately serves society to solve unmet needs. As a co-founder of SciWri my vision is to share ideas and stories through SciWri and create awareness in innovation, entrepreneurship, alternate careers for PhDs, sustainable development, biodiversity, environment, and leadership.


The myths about networking

in That Makes Sense by

During a recent talk  I gave on transitioning to tech transfer from academia at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY, USA), I was asked quite an interesting set of questions. In this write up I want to focus on two issues which I find many of the young academicians struggle as they plan their next career move.
A young aspiring postdoc asked me from the crowd “ When I see all the alternative career choices I get totally lost. I wonder what is the best fit for me?” I have been trained to think about the experiment and publish and enjoy the academic, intellectual rigor and I feel totally lost as soon as I see the list of alternative careers and wonder where should I start?”
Those who have transitioned to alternative careers have found that what helps most is talking to people who have made the leap. One can either reach out to alumni from your institutes or now with the availability of LinkedIn and Facebook you can reach out to people beyond your alumni and ask for an informational interview. From what I have seen people are always willing to help if you are earnest in your approach. During such interactions, you can ask them about the job roles and responsibilities and also how their academic training gets utilized in their new role outside academia.
An another approach to test whether you will be suitable for such a career would be to do internships/ online or regular courses which can give you the flavor of the job. In my case, an internship with technology transfer offices at Cornell CTL and Columbia CTV were of immense help. I had known beyond any doubt that this is exactly what I want to do. Of course, I had great mentors in tech transfer, and that always helps.

There is also a misconception that whether alternative careers can be intellectually stimulating given one of the things which drive most of us in academia is the intellectual aspect of the profession and of course the creativity. From what I have seen from my experience and from others who have transitioned more or less with me, one would be surprised to see the kind of smart people who runs the world outside academia. In fact, they many times brings more meaning to academic science as the science steps out of the lab. More than once during my interaction with my colleagues I have often wondered how much science would have benefited had they continued academia. Apart from academics, many are fluent from Beethoven to Shakespeare to Charlie Parker to Ravishankar…and often flawless in their assessment.

So my suggestion would be to talk to people, get to know about what excites them about their work and what doesn’t. When you meet people, you can also gauge from their personality that whether such a job will suit your personality or not. Even if nothing substantial comes out of the meeting, at least you will make an attempt to make a new friend outside academia, and that is a good start.

The another question that I got asked was “When should one start to network? Also, everyone will know that he or she is desperate for a job which will defeat the entire purpose of networking.”

Networking is not to seek a job. That is perhaps the biggest misunderstanding. No one asks for a job in networking. It is to find common ground. However, one should mention at a suitable time that you are ready for a new opportunity or challenge in your career. Moreover, networking events are the best places to find your mentors or sponsors and just like academia it always help to have them by your side.

I remember in one of the career development events at NYAS, New York a speaker said: “You should start networking from yesterday.” One should do networking throughout the year, whether you are in a job or looking for a job or planning to make a leap to a new field. I have known professionals who got great introductions from the people they met in jazz bars or from soccer matches they played together. So make sure you have a life outside lab to talk to people about your hobbies and interest. You will be surprised how hobbies can be a game changer.

One needs to learn the art of talking to professionals in networking events, and that once can develop with time. One of the best ways is to practice your introductory pitch, and that itself can take months. Remember the first impression always counts. We have seen many during networking events slips in his/her resume and that according to many is an absolute no. Everyone in networking events is in general aware that people who are attending the session have either came to learn about new opportunities, job description or are looking for new challenges, so don’t be shy. Keep a smile and reach out, show your strengths your passion and commitment to try new opportunities.

In a world we live in there are now other forms of networking. LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook are all great platforms to network and meet interesting people. There are several career support groups. Join them, engage in stimulating and useful conversations. You will be surprised you will have friends sooner than you thought and who will vouch for you during your job search phase. Therefore, learn the tricks of social networking sites and use them to your advantage. Also, networking is not only about asking, but it is also about sharing and many comfortable forgets that part, unfortunately.

To conclude, meet new people with an open mind, help them if you can, all the person in front of you wants to know is how interesting are you professionally.



Enjoys good friends, music and adda.


Others who contributed substantially to the ideas expressed in the write-up are Roshni, Satarupa, Gaurav, Sutirtha, and Madhurima.

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This work by ClubSciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Avoiding anxiety attacks in today’s contract based academic training-10 commandments

in That Makes Sense by

“It brings a persistent low-grade anxiety that lingers around my heart, sometimes traveling up to constrict my throat as the time remaining on my contract dwindles. Rinse, and repeat. For years. I don’t know what impact this lifestyle is having on my health, but it can’t be good.” The Guardian about contract based positions in academia.

How to circumvent the situation?

As long as you are in Ph.D., things are fine, there is a stability for at least 5-6 yrs where a continuous source of scholarship is promised on paper, however, the situation changes once you are a scholar and now want to move onto the next obvious training in academia which is postdoc and which is unfortunately, CONTRACTUAL. The training is a must to pursue an academic career and rightly so.

But how to avoid getting trapped by the feeling described aptly above?

Here are 10 points which I feel might help:

  1.  Do not put all your eggs in one basket.
  2. Be aware of the employability scenario.
  3. Network and meet people, talk to people, use social networking sites.
  4. Develop SKILLS beyond the bench, Ph.D. is a long time to DISCOVER yourself- what you are good at and what you are not made for.
  5. Be truthful to your potentials- Most of us are not truthful to ourselves. We will ignore all the signs which tell us that this might not be the right thing for us, till we fall into the trap.
  6. Do proper due diligence on the Postdoc lab.
  7. Choose mentors not the university.
  8. Think ahead-Plan the career, does not mean you should not relax and enjoy your life outside the lab hours.
  9. Have alternative BACKUP plans.
  10. Have a financial plan from day one of Ph.D. – It will help in the times of despair.




Enjoys good friends, music and adda.


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This work by ClubSciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Face to Face with Sandhya Sriram

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In this episode of Face to Face, Dr. Sandhya Sriram talks about her role as a Program and Grants Coordinator at ASTAR Singapore. More importantly, she talks about her journey as a postdoc, her network strategies, and her entrepreneurial ventures in science communication and more….

Postdoctoral Position at Shiv Nadar University (SNU)

in Scientagon by
 Roy  Lab is looking for a postdoctoral position funded by the Indo-French Center for the Promotion of Advanced Research (CEFIPRA) at SNU. 
 Applications are invited from eligible PhD graduates in the area of cell biology, molecular biology, and protein biochemistry. We preferably expect that applicants have previous work experience with human cell culture, cell imaging, mitochondrial cell biology and standard molecular and epigenetic techniques including Real Time PCR, cloning, transfection, Southern, Northern and Western analysis.
If you want to share any openings in your lab with us kindly write to us at

Face to Face with Prof. Lawrence Rajendran on Science Matters

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“Observations, not stories, are the pillars of good science. Today’s journals however, favor story-telling over observations, and congruency over complexity. As a consequence, there is a pressure to tell only good stories. Moreover, incentives associated with publishing in high-impact journals lead to loss of scientifically and ethically sound observations that do not fit the storyline, and in some unfortunate cases also to fraudulence. The resulting non-communication of data and irreproducibility not only delays scientific progress but also negatively affects society as a whole. ”

This is the concept of Science Matters a GenX journal for scientists. Prof Lawrence Rajendran from the University of Zurich talks about his idea of what a journal should feel like, and why ScienceMatters is different and has a potential to change the publication industry as well as science.


Prof. Lawrence Rajendran

University of Zurich

Founder: Science Matters



Face to Face with IISc IGEM Team Boston 2016

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We saw them pitching for their team, we saw them breaking the barriers and reaching out to CSG members, we saw their never say die enthusiasm during the last 6 months as they struggled to get their team registered in IGEM Boston. We then saw them in Boston eventually winning the Bronze. Here they share their story and their dreams. Enjoy

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