Scientists Simplifying Science

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March 2016

Frequently asked questions about patenting (part 2)

in Sci-IP by


• Can I patent an idea that is just an idea?
No. Ideas that do not describe an identifiable embodiment or do not have any functionality are not patentable.

• Who can file a patent application?
Inventors, owners and individuals or organizations with sufficient proprietary interest in the invention can file a patent application for an invention.

• When should I file a patent?
Usually when your invention is enabled and before you disclose your invention to public, for example through seminars or trade shows, or even before signing a potential license agreement with a third party.

• How do I know that my invention is enabled?
In simple terms, your invention is enabled if it functions as described by you and extensive experimentation is not required to practice it.

• Do I have to submit a working prototype of the invention when I am filing a patent application?

• I do not know how my invention works, but it works. In other words, I do not know the scientific principle that makes my invention work. Can I file a patent application for the said invention?

• Why should I file a patent application?
Once a patent is granted, its gives the owner of the patent, rights to exclude others from using/copying, selling, offering for sale and importing the invention from another country.

• Why should I file a patent application if my employer owns the rights to my invention?
You may benefit from financial and professional incentives that many employers give for generating intellectual property that adds value to the employer.

• My employer owns the invention I wish to patent. How should I go about filing a patent application for my invention?
Please contact your employers. They will guide you. In general, industries have patent liaisons or counsels and academic organizations have technology transfer experts who will guide you.

• My employer does not own the invention I wish to patent. How should I go about filing a patent application for my invention?
You can file a patent application all by yourself (called pro se) or with the help of a professional who has knowledge about patent laws.

• What kind of professional help should I seek for when I am filing a patent application myself?
Almost all countries have patent agents who are qualified to represent inventors and registered with the country-specific patent office. You may discuss your invention with patent agents or patent attorneys (who are also lawyers) after signing non-disclosure or confidentiality agreements with them.

• Am I required to go through a patent agent to file a patent application?
No. In fact, you can file patent applications pro se, that is, by yourself. However, most patent offices recommend that prospective applicants retain the services of a registered patent attorney or patent agent to prepare and prosecute their applications.

• Can I take the help of a patent agent in India for representing me at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)?
No. Only candidates who pass the USPTO registration examination (also known as the patent bar exam) and registered at USPTO can represent inventors in the US. However, inventors may utilize the expertise of other individuals including patent professionals in other countries to prepare and submit applications. In this scenario, the inventor will be representing himself/herself at the USPTO. Similarly, only candidates who have passed the Indian Patent Agent examination and registered at the Indian patent office to practice Indian patent law can represent you at the Indian Patent Office.

• How does the services of a patent agent help in the preparation and prosecution of applications at the USPTO?
When filing an application at a patent office, there are technical and legal requirements to be met. A patent is only as good as what is claimed and how it is described in a patent application. A strong patent protection requires good patent application drafting skills. A good patent helps to prevent others from designing around your invention and prevent others from entering the same market space. An experienced patent attorney or agent brings such skills in drafting patent applications.

In addition, the attorney/agent also helps in prosecuting the application before the patent office. Once an application is examined, the patent office sends out office actions- official communications to the inventor, and may reject or allow based on the merits of the patent application. The attorney/agent, on behalf of the inventor, can present arguments to meet the legal and technical thresholds set by the patent office and help in obtaining a patent. This requires an understanding of the patent law and claim language.

• What are the contents of a patent application?
The main contents of a patent application are a written description of your invention called specification, drawings that help to describe the invention and specific claims that you seek exclusive protection for based on the specification. Among other things, it also contains information about the inventor, owner and representative of the invention.

• How long does it take to file a patent application?
It takes anywhere from one week to more than a month to file a patent application. The main factor that determines the time taken is drafting a patent application, which usually depends on the nature of the invention. Complex inventions, such as inventions in biotechnology and life sciences take around 2-3 weeks to draft good patent application.

• How long does it take to obtain a patent after filing an application?
In the US it may take from 1-3 years depending upon the area and the procedure for examination used. There are accelerated procedures available for an increased fee. In India it takes up to 8 years to obtain a patent.

• Where do I file my patent?
You need to file patents in countries in which you wish for patent protection. Many inventors choose to file in United States because United States is one of the largest economies in the world. Other regions that people consider are Europe, Japan, China, Brazil, and India.

• I am not a US citizen, but my invention was made in the US. Should I file for patent in the US or the country of my citizenship?
Any person can file for a patent in US. However, if the invention was made in US and the inventor wants to first file a patent outside US, the inventor has to apply for a foreign filing license.

• I do not want to obtain a foreign filing license for my invention. What are the consequences?
Not getting a license and still filing outside will cost US patent.

Read the first part here

Syam Prasad Anand, PhD
Founder, Mainline Intellectual Property
Ardmore, Philadelphia, USA.

Celebrate Pi day and Albert Einstein’s birthday!

in Theory of Creativity by


Going by US date format, today 3/14 is PI day. However, today is also the birthday of one of the greatest ever scientists – Albert Einstein. To commemorate it, here is a sketch by Swaprava Nath, a Fulbright-Nehru scholar postdoc at Carnegie Mellon university.

Image source:
Swaprava’s webpage:

Entrepreneurship and IP Part I: Starting up right

in Sci-IP/SciBiz by

“The best way to predict the future is to create it.” – Peter Drucker

Innovation and entrepreneurship are the most common buzz words today. One can clearly see the energy, enthusiasm of young talents raring to plunge into entrepreneurial ventures in Indian start up ecosystems. Whether it is a post doctoral researcher in IISc thinking about starting a company based on a brilliant idea of 3D printing technology or a fresh engineering graduate fuelling his renewable energy project for his start up, or a yoga therapist ready to go global with her brand, all are proficient in their respective fields. It is a privilege to associate with such diverse, creative and brilliant entrepreneurial ventures. While it is important for an entrepreneur to follow her passion, initiative, commitment to the idea and dedication to her venture, it is also equally important to starting up right. Protection of Intellectual property(IP) is a valuable business asset for a start up. Irrespective of nature of business, IP provides both business value and competitive advantage for a company. IP policy should be ingrained by design into company strategies as the business develops. Succeeding in the marketplace with your idea is a journey- a continuous process. You need to think and follow some strategies for successfully building an enterprise. Here is what you need to know while starting your venture if you are new to the business world.

Choosing a business name:

1) Company name and Trademark: Trademark is a mark capable of being represented graphically and is capable of distinguishing your goods or services from others. A mark could be:  Brand (Example: BPL), Device (refers to pictorial representation. Example: CoCa-Cola), Name (Example: TATA), Letter (Example: IBM, GM), Word (Example: LIFEINTELECT, INFOSYS) and so on. Think long and think deep about your business name. A name that will last long because rebranding is expensive and stressful. Choose a name which will embody your values, stand out and communicate your identity to your consumers. You should avoid generic or descriptive phrases as your company name. For example, “Laptop Service”, ‘The Solar Panel” etc. Arbitrary and coined names are considered as stronger mark and are entitled to greater protection. For example, “Yahoo’ for internet service, “Kodak” for camera etc.

2) Company name for Limited Liability Company: If you are planning for Limited Liability Company, you need to check the availability of names with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and Registrar of Companies.

3) Your web presence: A company’s website can be a great tool for promoting business. You will need to work with an available web domain and register your company domain name with a web hosting company.

Please note that all these three bodies function independent of each other. So before choosing your company name you need to check the availability of names with all three.

Understand your industry’s best IP practices:

Protecting your intellectual property through patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights, technical know-how and other tactics creates a legal fencing necessary to safeguard your idea, builds a cushion of competitive advantage and helps in fund raising. Despite being expensive, it is necessary to build a strong IP portfolio. And that should be adequately funded and managed well.

Before creating the IP road map for your company, it is imperative to know how your industry deals with intellectual property. For example, in biotechnology, pharmaceutical and telecommunication industry, products stay on the market for decades. That suggests start-ups in these sectors need bulletproof IP and patent protection from the beginning. However, retail industry, consumer device and manufacturing sectors have a shorter product life-cycle. So, the best strategy used by these industries is to file late in the product-development process, and may also benefit from the use of different IP policies such as trade secrets and confidentiality agreements.

Start the IP protection process early:

Whatever may be the IP strategy you follow for your business, you need to understand, plan and execute them from the beginning. If you have a big idea for a product or process, it is always good to know the possible options to protect the idea. Talk to an IP consultant and do some research at an early stage. Believe me, many times it helps a lot in iteration and proof of concept phase, and aid your innovation process. If patenting early is best, search out an IP firm in the beginning. Already years in business but don’t have IP policies to protect your valuable ideas or brand? Get started now. In the present day knowledge economy, IP protection should not be at the bottom of your to-do-list. Additionally know that, for industrial design and patent protection, the subject matter has to be new & novel. So, you need to file for patent protection or design registration before making any public disclosure.


Every business is different and every industry requirements are different. So an IP strategy of a company depends on technology, funding, consumer base, product life cycle and stages of company. Success in market place depends on several factors, and if you don’t plan for success from the beginning you are almost certainly planning to fail. You should have immediate, short-term, intermediate and long-term strategies for IP protection and innovation.

References: 1, 2, 3

— Lipika Sahoo


–This post is the first in an upcoming series of articles on “Entrepreneurship and IP”.–

Disclaimer: The materials in the blog are solely for the purposes of informing, assisting and educating the readers and are not in anyway a substitute for professional opinion or advice. They do not constitute legal advice or legal opinion or solicitation.

Dr. Lipika Sahoo, Founder & CEO of Lifeintelect Consultancy Pvt. Ltd., a registered Indian Patent Agent having 16 years of experience in academia and industry. She holds a Ph.D from Indian Institute of Science (IISc). She holds triple masters; MSc from Sambalpur University; PGDIPR from National Law School of India University (NLSIU); PGCBM from Xavier Institute of management (XIMB); and advanced certifications from World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Patents and Patent Drafting. Dr. Lipika is also an inventor and passionate about technology & innovation; likes music, history & architecture.||


(image source:


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CSG meet-ups -A photoblog

in ClubSciWri by

Sometimes the virtual worlds fall short- Joining hands to move from a virtual world to a real world

…. and this is just the beginning!

Tea Board@IISc
Stanford Oval@ SFO
Roosevelt Island @NYC
Saravana Bhavan @NYC
Emory University @ Atlanta
Jackson Heights@NYC
11921707_10153443205740910_3766709048536302371_n NY@NY
Going Big @Boston
Washington DC
V for Victory@Boston
NY to Atlanta @GA tech
Best is Yet to Come@SFO

Our skill sets are not unique, but our personalities are!

in Sci-Pourri/That Makes Sense by


Let me start by telling you a short story. After joining Counsyl, I asked for feedback from one of my colleagues who interviewed me. To my surprise she replied, “You were hilarious during the interview”. What!? As per expectations I am supposed to be serious and not hilarious during an interview. When I asked her why she thought so, she replied “You told stories that made us all laugh”. These “stories” included my high-spirited driving and some of my crazy cooking endeavors. During the debrief session the team that consisted of seven people (which included two MDs & three PhDs) agreed that all of them felt more comfortable interacting with me (and therefore working with me) compared to other applicants with the similar qualifications. So, what I am trying to get through here is, personal attitude makes a huge difference. Yes, qualification matters, but that is not something unique!

Now to sum up my experiences from several interviews: some, where I was an interviewer, and some when I was interviewed.

Let us assume your resume matched for a vacancy, and you got a call from a human resources (HR) personal. They called you because they believed your background somewhat matches the job description. The reason I say “somewhat” is because in most cases, it would never be a perfect match. If the HR recommends your resume to the relevant person, you would expect to get at least one more call from an expert who understands your field, and sees how perfectly you fit into the position. Before getting the call, they would most likely get in touch via an email to schedule a time to discuss. Please make sure you are flexible with the time. The important thing now is to do a homework about the company: their product, vision, market position, competitor, etc. It is advisable to be cognizant if the company created any recent buzz with regard to their product or other innovative developments. Now, regarding the telephonic interview, make sure you are in a quiet place with a good cellular signal and use your headphone with a mic for the conversation. Try to avoid any form of distraction like tapping the pen or checking emails or browsing websites. Generally, a telephonic interview goes the following way: at first the person from the company tells you about their product, goals, history, etc. Then the table is turned on your side, where you are asked about your background to gage if you are a match. When it comes to talking about you, make sure you can connect your experience with the position by means of a smooth story that is easy to comprehend. Talk only about topics that are relevant to the question and do not digress too far from it. Ask questions about the company; you could make a list of questions beforehand. Also, make sure you know the background of the person you are talking to (a quick search on LinkedIn would do the trick). This last part makes talking with a stranger, comfortable. If you see that the person on the other side is out of topic to discuss, try bringing in topics which makes them comfortable, so that the discussion can continue. Avoid saying anything negative until you feel it is absolutely necessary.

Let us say you have successfully cracked the initial rounds, and you are being selected for the onsite interview. Again, be flexible with the schedule. If you have any concerns with the schedule, let them know. They would always respect your time and frankness. Do your homework: this time on your subject as well as on the company and the people you’ll be talking to.

Before going to the interview make sure you are wearing a proper attire. It’s not always necessary to wear formal clothing; you could wear something semi-formal too. Whatever you wear, be comfortable in it and make sure it is proper. For example, the tie should be matched to your shirt, the belt to your shoes, etc. Get a clean cut (for guys). If possible, carry a bottle of water during the interview. You would probably find yourself talking face to face with 5-7 people, 30-45 minutes each. Make your pitch; it is enough time to prove yourself and for them to gage you. In general, the people on the interview board are assigned to get an overall picture of the candidate. This means one person would be responsible for understanding your subject knowledge, another interviewer would try to understand your vision, and so on. They may seem to ask you the same questions repeatedly, but remember, their goals are different.

During the interview try to connect with the person and make him/her comfortable. Let us assume you are from New York City and the interviewer also moved in from NYC. Try to connect with him/her using this point. If the interviewer has never been to New York, you could connect at that point too. Let them know why he/she should visit NYC at least once. Try to take control of the conversation by gently guiding and bringing their attention to the topics you are confident about. Try not to make it into a boring question-answer session. Rather, make it into a comfortable discussion. You would probably talk to a few people on the interview board who would report to you on the job, if you were hired. There is a particular reason for them to be present. It is to measure your capability and attitude towards the people who are not as qualified as you are. Never assume you are smarter than them, just remember they are already in, and know more about the company than you do. It takes 4-5 hours to complete the whole process and try to keep a smile on your face till the end. Make sure you write a thank you email after coming back with your positive experience.

Again, our skill sets are not unique, our personalities are. It makes lots of difference in an interview. Be confident, be yourself, be positive and be open to conversation and do your homework.

These are my experiences from the numerous interviews I have faced. It may or may not be the same for everyone and/or for every opportunity. But the general concept is same. Good luck!



About the author: Saurav is currently working as an assistant director (CLIA laboratory), Counsyl, after completing his ABMGG accredited clinical molecular genetics fellowship from Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York. As a clinical/laboratory director, he oversees various groups associated with the clinical lab, his responsibilities also includes signing out clinical cases and communicate with the clinicians, patients and regulatory authorities to interpret the results and to educate them about the genetic tests (NGS) Counsyl provides. He also actively participates in various research programs at Counsyl in collaboration with other companies and universities.

Edited by: Sitharam Ramaswami (

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Insights from a Data Scientist: Face to Face with Chinmaya Gupta

in Face à Face by

Dr. Chinmaya Gupta (CG) is a data scientist at Allstate Insurance Company. Prior to joining Allstate, he collaborated with molecular biologists on gene network modeling at University of Houston and worked on chaotic dynamical systems at University of Southern California. He obtained his bachelors in mathematics from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi and his masters and Ph.D. in mathematics and statistics from the University of Houston. Dr. Gupta blogs at


Mario Pinto (MP) had a face to face session with CG on his journey and his message for aspiring data scientists.

MP: What attracted you to a career in data science? Can you describe your transition from academia to a data scientist role?

CG: As a data scientist you get an opportunity to work with some amazingly rich data sets, and work on some extremely challenging problems. The work atmosphere is very research oriented, your team is almost entirely composed of PhDs, and in a lot of ways, it’s like working in academia, without having to spend large amounts of time fighting for grant money. This is what really attracted me to the Data Scientist role in the first place.

The transition from academia to industry was uneventful, though I realize that this is not the typical experience for most people. It helped that I had a very strong statistics background, and a very strong programming background, and I kind of hit the ground running once I was hired.

The process of getting hired was somewhat tedious because a lot of times companies screening resumes have no idea what to make of your resume when you present with a PhD in Mathematics, your resume points to your google scholar profile which lists paper after paper with the name E. Coli in the title, and you list a bunch of computer-sciency stuff in the skills section of your resume.

Increasingly, however, companies are getting better at identifying probable Data Scientists.


MP: What does your job involve?

CG: Many of the same things that PhDs love doing: talking to people about vaguely defined problems, working towards defining those problems to the point they can be solved, gathering or discovering data, gluing everything together, coming up with a solution, and then defending it in front of a lot of people.

Also, there’s usually pizza, cookies and donuts somewhere in there.


MP: What according to you are the key differences between working in academia and working in industry?

CG: I suppose every Data Scientist role is different, and the culture can be very different between companies. I find the two roles very similar, at least in the broad sense, in the sense of culture, working environment etc.

The main difference that I have felt is the pace (way faster). There are other minor superficial differences (I dress better now than I did while working in academia) which should not matter when considering the switch.


MP: What have you found most rewarding about your job? What have you found most frustrating?

CG: The most rewarding part of my job is coming up with solutions to problems or general insights. Sometimes you come up with a way of looking at the problem that no one has done before, and because you thought about it differently, your solution added a perspective that wasn’t available before. It’s incredibly rewarding to have that happen, and it feels great when you learn to make that happen frequently.

One thing PhDs are often bad at is understanding how organizations and individuals function, and as someone who never had to deal with that stuff before, it can sometimes be frustrating to have projects not move forward at the pace you want to push them. But it helps to realize that when you’re working in academia you’re kind of a one-man island (or a small team island), but working in a large corporation there could literally be hundreds of people who need to do tiny portions of things which enable the whole project. You may not even know how some things happen, or the people who make them happen, till they don’t, at which point you find out.


MP: What skills are needed to succeed as a data scientist?

CG: Be good at asking questions. Be good at understanding what you can conclude from a given dataset, and what you cannot. Develop the sense to understand what data can be had. Have the ability to handle pressure. Be creative. Always question your work; question the work of others.

I think these are skills most PhDs should already have.


MP: Do you have any suggestions for someone who wants to break into data science?

CG: I cannot stress this enough: learn to program, and be intellectually curious. Everything else will fall in place.



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Laapataa- Understanding the Big D(ata)

in Laapataa- The Indian PhD by


One Among Us - March 2016



About the cartoonist and the blogger: Sujit did his PhD from CSA (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore) and joined Philips. After few years in the industry he joined IIIT Bangalore as an Assistant Professor and continues to teach there. Creator of ” Lapataa”- A fictional IISCian as he dodges through the reality of PhD. It is one of the fantastic piece of art which ClubSciWri thought needs to preserved and showed to the world and other alumni. The clips connect all of us whether it is an IIScian or a non-IIScian who did his PhD in India.

©Sujit Kumar Chakrabarti

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TweetChat with VijayRaghavan, Secretary of DBT

in Face à Face by

On Feb 21st, ClubSciWri organised an open interview with Prof K. VijayRaghavan, Secretary of the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), in the twitter townhall #AskVijayDBT. There was an overwhelming response (>30 active participants in 7 countries) to our call for discussions with him and we have tried to collect the energetic exchange of ideas and publish the entire discussion. The flow of the tweetchat was quick and compact due to the time constraints, large number of participants and overlap of tweets. Yet, we have tried to rearrange them in the best possible order of the discussion. The sheer turnout at the event and the variety of questions asked was not only heartening but also demonstrated the very evidence of ‘fire in the belly‘ which Vijay repeatedly asks of, of everyone as part of a young and dynamic Indian research sector.


The general plan of the twitter chat was to initiate discussions with DBT, regarding initiatives to support entrepreneurship in biotech, industrial opportunities for trained biologists and understanding the existing science policies. Our aim was also to provide a direct platform to pose questions to the policy makers of the Indian biotechnology sector – an enthusiastic VijayRaghavan, assisted by Shailja Gupta (Director, International Co-operation, DBT).


Nurture Entrepreneurship

In wake of ‘MakeInIndia Biotechnology‘, it was natural for queries regarding the expected outcomes of this initiative, to rise.  While lauding the surge in Indian entrepreneurship, Vijay acknowledged that scaling up remains an issue due to many reasons (regulations, taxations, etc.) which needs to be worked upon and that the Government of India (GoI) was ‘proactive’ about it.

Predicting a three times growth in biotechnology sector in the near future, Vijay mentioned the need to bring about regulation, ease in business and training high quality personnel apart from utilising the MakeInIndia programme to facilitate in-house production of biotech products rather than importing them. If the newly launched National Biotechnology Development Strategy goes to plan, we can expect fulfillment of these predictions.


Research Support for the proliferating lifescience research community

A large number of questions revolved around fellowships and mentoring. Participants wished to know if programmes to nurture young researchers, on the lines of Young Investigator Program (YIP) as in NCBS are being considered in other institutes funded by DBT, to which the Secretary to DBT responded saying that it is idea to be given more thought.

Vijay also mentioned grant writing assistance provided by DBT and urged all researchers to watch out for related opportunities at IndiaBioScience. The recent (Feb, 2016) induction of India as a member state into the EMBC and EMBO, makes larger number of fellowships to be accessible by young Indian researchers.

An intelligent exchange of dialogues leads to new ideas and indeed, the suggestions provided by our twitterati did lead the Secretary to DBT’s to ponder on some and promise action on the others.

  • Welcoming the integration of STEM PhDs in deciding science policies
  •  Considering Young Investigator Program (YIP) like initiatives to be undertaken at institutes other than NCBS
  • In the present scenario most Indian post-docs overseas very much wish to come back to India with a PI position. Vijay has acknowledged the need for relaxing the age limit for PI applicants and for more gender equality in the research sector, which is a welcoming future direction for Indian science (women participants formed ~26% of this twitterchat).

  • Provision of a platform to ease collaborations between Indian and international scientists, esp the Non-Resident Indian (NRI) researchers was suggested and is hopefully underway. If realised, this would be a major boost to in-house biotech knowledge, while NRI scientists can also maintain a home base and tap the wealth of well-trained human resource.

Along with assurances of GoI’s actions for boosting the research scenario in the country, there were also words of encouragement and caution for home-bound NRI researchers.


Science policy

An interesting discussion ensued regarding the GoI’s effort to increase investments in research training to match international levels. We can sympathise with the DBT about lower allocation of funds as compared to other departments like DAE (atomic energy) and DRDO (defence), as evident from the figures sourced from the yearly Indian budget (Ref: Nature News) (See graph below).

There is some consolation regarding the 12% increase in funding as compared to the previous year, yet the money is half of what was estimated for the establishment of a genomics hub in India. Yet, the spirits of the Secretary to DBT remain indomitable and in his opinion, we need to be well-equipped with good plans prior to the availability of funds.

Finally, one can safely conclude the enthusiasm of the participants was matched by Vijay’s optimism. Vijay and Shailija have also resolved to gather questions from this exchange and issue a formal response. We look forward to hearing more about the additional questions from the twitterchat.


Fire in the belly

After the tweetchat the young scientific community went back with an inspiring take home message from Vijay and with an assurance that the Indian science is headed in the right direction. Vijay has also received suggestions for building a ground work for the improved future of Indian bioscience and he went back with a firm understanding that quite a bit of ground has to be covered to make this worthy dream a reality.

We at ClubSciWri are elated that researchers participating from half way around the world could instantaneously ask questions and provide suggestions to a science policy maker in a prominent funding body of India, who has also devoted the time and had the courage to answer those queries. This set-up took a bit of our time but we think it was worthwhile, as also evident from the participants’ feedback. Nonetheless, hosting our first tweetchat has been a great experience but we hope to notch up our performance in the next coming chats.

Written and compiled by Kartika Shetty

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