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September 2017

Transition from Bench to Investor relations and Patient engagement-Face to Face with Dr. Michelle Avery

in Face à Face by

Nida Siddiqui (NS), interviews Dr. Michelle Avery (MA), who tells us about her love for science communication, and how she used skills learnt during her PhD, to transition from bench research to being the ‘Director of Investor Relations and Patient Engagement’ at Summit Therapeutics.

NS: Could you tell us about yourself?

MA: I loved science since an early age, and even volunteered at a local science museum when I was old enough, but I could never have imagined where it would take me. I earned my undergraduate degree in neuroscience and dance from Skidmore College. While I was there, I had a professor who told me that in order to have a career involving neuroscience, you had to have a PhD. And so, off I went to get my PhD, which I obtained from the University of Massachusetts Medical School, where I studied axon degeneration in Drosophila. I knew that I wanted to branch out from academia and so opted to not do a postdoc. After graduation, I joined a life sciences communication agency, called MacDougall Biomedical Communications. I’m now the Director of Investor Relations and Patient Engagement at Summit Therapeutics, a small biotech company developing drugs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and C. difficile infection. I also compete nationally in ballroom dancing in my spare time.

NS: What were some of the exciting projects that you did during your PhD/Postdoc?

 MA: I was a very fortunate grad student – the vast majority of my experiments went very well and resulted in several publications, two first authored papers and two others. My work centred on understanding axon degeneration. For the most part, I worked on a fusion protein that was originally discovered in mice about 20 years before I got to UMass, but its mechanism was still a mystery. We found that a protein, called Wlds, can stop axons from degenerating during injury and in some models of disease, a process that was previously thought to be passive one. I used Drosophila genetics to unravel how Wlds functions, and demonstrated that it acts through mitochondria. I also participated in a forward genetic screen, where we created thousands of mutant Drosophilas to find ones in which their axons didn’t degenerate; further proving that axon degeneration is an active process like apoptosis. We found several mutants that many others in the lab followed up on (and are continuing to follow up on).

 NS: Did you have a dilemma after your PhD, to choose from a postdoc/industry position?

 MA: My heart was not in research – I loved every aspect of it, except for doing it. I knew it wouldn’t be fair to myself or whichever research team I go to if I continued onto a postdoc. I was lucky enough to have a PI who was very supportive of me and my decision to go into industry, although some of my thesis committee members tried to pressure me into doing a postdoc.

 NS: When did you decide it was time to move on and transition to industry?

 MA: I decided a couple of years into my PhD that I wasn’t likely to continue on in academia. I’m a big believer that one should always love what they’re doing and make a change if they don’t. I did chat with several of my friends about whether to drop out of the PhD program or to finish my degree and most of them responded with “you’ve come this far, you’d probably regret it if you don’t finish.” I’m proud of what I’ve accomplished, but am happy to leave the bench behind.

NS: What are the skills that helped you crack your current position?

MA: Four main skills are crucial for my job:

  1. Learning – People often take for granted the main skill that we are taught in any PhD program. How to learn and then apply that learning. This ability has allowed me to learn the business of science, read and decipher scientific papers for the masses and be able to effectively research any challenge and come up with solutions.
  2. Problem-solving – They don’t call it research because you do it just once. Science has taught me how to expect the unexpected and find a way around it. Every company has unique challenges and figuring out the best way to address them is key to good communication.
  3. Communicating – In my career, it’s very important for me to be able to tell a compelling story to a wide variety of audiences – from young patients to other PhDs who have now turned into investors. The overall message stays the same, but the details change, based on the level of knowledge each group has. Having the opportunity to present to different groups during grad school has helped immensely in this regard. In addition, my PI was great at preparing us for presentations – any time we presented in a conference or other event, we practiced in front of the entire lab and received detailed feedback on every slide, from the words we used to describe to the content of the slide.
  4. Confidence in questioning authority – We all know that science would not advance if researchers weren’t bold enough to question the reigning dogma. We’re taught to prove the null hypothesis and question every aspect of ours and others’ data. This is a very useful skill when it comes to shaping a communications strategy, crafting the message that conveys your story and preparing your team well for a question and answer session with different audiences. It ultimately gives more credibility to the company, which is a company’s greatest asset in biotech.

NS: Could you describe your role as the Director of investor relations and patient engagement?

MA: In smaller biotech companies, investor relations and corporate communications are one and the same. The life of a biotech company depends on its ability to raise money and fund research. For that, you need a compelling story, honest and frequent communication and a good relationship with Wall Street. These three tasks fall under my purview.

A compelling story should start with a simple message that permeates through all communications of the company. Therefore, I’m responsible for all external written and oral communications – the vast majority of which I take the first draft on, whereas some others (mainly scientific presentations/posters) I simply review to make sure they support our story. The communications I draft include, website text, press releases, presentations, conference call scripts, Q&A documents and financial filings (as a public company, we have to file certain forms with the Securities and Exchange Commission).

On the honest and frequent communications front, I typically map out a year or two worth of upcoming events (e.g. conferences, corporate and scientific announcements), identify gaps in the frequency of communication and come up with clever ways to fill those gaps, such as targeting a scientific publication for that time far enough in advance.

In regards to maintaining a good relationship with Wall Street, there are three categories of Wall Street folks that I interact with: bankers: that help us to raise money; buysiders: the investors that buy our stock; and sellsiders: who write reports on our company recommending whether to buy, hold or sell our stock.

NS: Could you elaborate on investor relations strategy?

MA: An investor relations strategy includes interactions with the bankers, buysiders and sellsiders; a plan for continuing the relationships, and also building them. Thus, I spend a lot of time traveling with my Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. Each bank typically holds conference during the year, where we present and get to meet one-on-one with buyside investors. Usually, we take a day or two on either side of these conferences to meet the sellsiders or other investors who weren’t at the conference. We also conduct what are called non-deal roadshows, meaning we’re not looking to raise money, but rather are out meeting with buyside investors at their offices. We try and conduct a non-deal roadshow every three months at different locations both in the US and Europe. For sellsiders, we frequently call and meet ones that write about us to make sure they’re as up to date as possible. We also seek out and educate sellsiders that write about other companies in our space. It’s important for them to know as much as they can about a disease space, so we make sure they have an accurate picture of our company which may increase our chances of getting mentioned in research they cover about other companies. In some cases, you can even persuade a sellsider to start writing reports about your company. Another incredibly important aspect of my job is to make sure that we all stay out of jail. All joking aside, there are certain obligations that a public company has in terms about what and when it discloses certain information. I tend to say I’m the nosiest person at the company because of this task – I need to understand what’s going on with every group within the company to know whether or not we need to make a disclosure and when we need to do so. It’s also great to have a head’s up when something like data might be coming, so I can plan the scenario and ensure we have all the right messages and materials ready when it’s time to get the disclosure out. There are many other aspects to investor relations, but these are the main components.

NS: Could you describe the concept of patient engagement?

MA: Patient engagement is relatively new in biotech companies. More and more, biotech companies are realizing that patients are very important for the development of their drugs. In order for a drug to get to the market, you need patient enrolment in clinical trials, and therefore, they need to be designed with patients in mind. So, this role is a two-way street – where we need to educate the patients and in return we need to be educated by them. On the educational front, I spend time traveling to patient organization meetings, to present our approach towards treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy and our clinical trials. These meetings are a great way for us to be educated about the patient population – the questions they ask and discussions they have could be very informative. We also set up periodic webinars, send around newsletters, use social media and keep the patient and family website up to date. Another way that patients educate us is through an advisory board, where we get their feedback on clinical trial protocols, what’s most important in their quality of life and what attributes they look for in a potential drug. It’s great to be at a company that cares about its patients and works to involve them in our drug development as best as possible. It’ll be even better if one day I can tell the patients that we have a new treatment option for them.

NS: What would be your advice to PhD students and postdocs looking to transition to the industry?

MA: I would advise students and postdocs to follow their hearts first and foremost – if you want to make a transition, you can do it and be successful no matter what pushback you may or may not receive from various advisors. Make sure that you openly communicate about your desire to transition – it could help open up doors to networking with others who may have made the transition. Look for other ways to network with those who have made a transition – your city may have a biotech organization that holds events, there may be alternative career talks at your institution or LinkedIn can be a good way to find people to connect with. Finally, look for ways to enhance your skillset for whatever career you may be interested in – if it’s communications, see if there’s a blog you can contribute to on a topic of your choice or sign up for presenting whenever you get a chance. Best of luck to you!

About Dr. Michelle Avery:

Michelle Avery, PhD, is Director of Investor Relations and Patient Engagement at Summit Therapeutics. Previously, she held various positions of increasing seniority at MacDougall Biomedical Communications with her last position being Senior Account Executive. She earned her PhD in neuroscience from the University of Massachusetts Medical School and BA in neuroscience and dance from Skidmore College.

 

About Nida Siddiqui:

 

Nida Siddiqui is currently pursuing final year PhD at the Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology, University of Warwick, UK. Follow her on LinkedIn and Twitter @siddnida.

Editors: Paurvi Shinde, PhD and Sayantan Chakraborty, PhD

Paurvi Shinde did her PhD, in Immunology from University of Connecticut Health and currently works as a Post Doc, at Bloodworks Northwest in Seattle. She’s loves editing and proofreading scientific articles, to convey the message behind it, in a clear and concise form. Follow her on Linkedin.

Sayantan Chakraborty is an IRTA postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore. A geneticist by training, he’s now exploring the realms of transcription factor dynamics in T cells using quantitative microscopy and systems biology tools. His interests extend to being the Editor for NPR Office Hours and Friends of Joe’s Big Idea. As he grows, he’s looking forward to interacting and networking with fellow science communicators and outreach managers across the globe. Additionally, he’s also a Crisis Counselor with the 24/7 Crisis Text Line. Follow him on Twitter @ch_sayantan

Cover image: Pixabay

The contents of Club SciWri are the copyright of PhD Career Support Group for STEM PhDs (A US Non-Profit 501(c)3, PhDCSG is an initiative of the alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The primary aim of this group is to build a NETWORK among scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs).

This work by Club SciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

 

Autistic individuals less startled by the unexpected

in That Makes Sense by

Autism, originating from the Greek word ‘autos’ meaning self was coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler to describe a subset of schizophrenic patients who were particularly self-absorbed and socially withdrawn. Currently, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), refers to a neurodevelopmental condition with core symptoms of social disinterest, communication deficits, and overly-focused or repetitive behavior. People with ASD are intolerant to change and crave routineness. In this context, it is interesting to note that adults with ASD are less surprised by the unexpected!

 

 

Expectations and beliefs pretty much drive the way we function and respond to the world.

Any kind of violation in our belief systems normally throws us off guard, and a frequent violation would force us to rethink and amend our expectations. For example, you enter your room and notice scribbles all over the walls. Your normal reaction would probably be that of surprise, but if you have kids around, you update your expectations accordingly. In ASD adults, this whole update mechanism appears to be compromised. Through a battery of tests and computational modeling, a recent study published in Nature Neuroscience showed that ASD individuals overestimate the volatility of their sensory environments. They have an impaired ability to learn from changes and subsequently build/ update expectations. The lesser the degree of surprise to sudden changes, the higher is the disorder’s severity. Behavior, in ASD cases, is driven more by senses than prior expectations or beliefs – something that normal individuals would exhibit only in unstable situations. In other words, autistic individuals act as they view and are less guided by higher order cognitive or social processes like learning and building stable expectations. This could also explain their predisposition to sensory overload and enhanced perceptual functioning.

One might think that being less susceptible to expectations and beliefs is great in a dynamic, ever-evolving world. On the contrary, the inability to build a stable belief system could be a problem – one of them being impaired viewing and interacting with others, a key ASD trait. Interestingly, the study revealed a connection between communication difficulties and building visual expectations as well; further research is necessary to understand this relationship better. Thus, this study puts quite a few points about ASD in perspective as represented by the diagram below.

Reference:

  1. Rebecca P Lawson, Christoph Mathys, Geraint Rees. Adults with autism overestimate the volatility of the sensory environmentNature Neuroscience, 2017; DOI: 1038/nn.4615
  2. http://www.autism.org.uk/sensory
  3. Mukerji Cora, Mottron Laurent, McPartland James C. Enhanced Perceptual Functioning. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2013

Featured image: Youtube

 

About the author:

 Saikata Sengupta is currently pursuing her Ph.D. from Department of Neurology at Friedrich Schiller University, Germany. You can follow her on Linkedin or Twitter

Editors: Sushama Sivakumar, pHD

Manoja Eswara, Ph.D.

Sushama Sivakumar did her Ph.D. from University of Oklahoma Health Sci. Ctr., USA and is currently doing her postdoctoral research work at UT Southwestern medical center, USA.

Manoja Eswara did her Ph. D. from University of Guelph, Canada and is currently doing her postdoctoral fellowship in Cancer Epigenetics at Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Meet the STEM Peers-Part 4

in ClubSciWri by

With less than two weeks to go for STEM Peers, we will catch up with our STEM peers who are traveling from as close as Worcester (MA, USA) to as far as Chennai (India).
So let’s know more about Vidhi Thakkar (who is traveling from Atlanta, GA), Parthiban Srinivasan (who is traveling from Chennai, India), Jagan Srinivasan (who is traveling from Worcester, MA) and Sutirtha Datta (who is traveling from New York, NY) and find out about their reasons of joining us for STEM Peers.

Why do I want to attend STEM Peers 2017?

Vidhi is a final year PhD student in Life sciences at The institute of biomedical sciences, Georgia State University, USA. She is planning to graduate by May 2018. She did her bachelor’s in pharmacy (B.Pharm) from India and then came to GSU right after bachelor’s to do her Master’s and PhD. She is looking to transition into career fields that will not make her stuck to a wet-lab or in front of a computer. So, she has been looking into Field application Scientist and MSL positions and trying to build her resume accordingly. Since she does not have any internship/industry experience in these fields, she wants to be proactive and look for her options right away.
She is really looking forward to connect/network with people that will give her insight into the job market and she thinks that STEMPeers will be a huge step towards helping her with her career choice.

Vidhi attended the Experimental biology 2017 conference in Chicago which helped her weigh out her career choices after PhD. The conference had many career development seminars and workshops. It helped her to choose her ideal career and she explored the many myths that surround career options for PhD’s. Job hunting by Bill Lindstaedt and Beyond the bench by Joe Tringali stood out for her. As she always mentions that such career seminars and one-on-one interactions/advice in CSG and ClubSciWri is like a world full of support outside her small world in the lab!

 

Why do I want to attend STEM Peers 2017?

Parthiban Srinivasan, An entrepreneur, businessman, film maker and a scientist. Lives in Chennai. Traveled frequently in Europe and USA. Masters and PhD from Indian Institute of Science (Chemistry to Engineering to Life Sciences and now switching over to Artificial Intelligence). Yes, my next innings will be in AI. Ground work is in progress. Past affiliations include Parthys Reverse Informatics, Jubilant Biosys, GvkBio as business unit head and as researcher at AstraZeneca, NASA Ames Research Center and Weizmann Institute of Science. As soon as I heard this meet few months ago, I planned my next USA trip to complete with STEMpeers and managed to plan that way. All of us know the industry landscape is changing. And would like to see/hear how our friends are planning for the new environment. As I took a break for the last couple of years and as I am getting back and starting from ground zero, this meeting will be a good beginning for my second innings. And in my new ecosystem, would love to see CSG to be part of it and it is already there. Other than the core pillars of CSG, I have not met other contributors of the forum. This will be a great opportunity to meet them and say “hi” to them.

 

Jagan Srinivasan: Panelist on Academic Careers

Professor Srinivasan was born and raised in India. He completed his undergraduate course work at the University of Chennai earning a BS in Zoology and Chemistry. He then moved on to his MS at Goa University completing a degree in Marine Biology and Biotechnology. Professor Srinivasan thereupon relocated to Tuebingen, Germany where he completed his Ph.D in Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology. His postdoctoral research soon after sent him to Pasadena, California where he studied the evolution of behavior in C. elegans and small-molecule metabolites regulating social behaviors in C. elegans at Caltech. After his time in Pasadena, in 2012, he moved to the opposite side of the country where he now is an Assistant Professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester, MA. While simultaneously teaching classes he also focuses on researching brain process signaling and social behaviors using the model system C. elegans.

 

Sutirtha Datta: Panelist on Science Communication and Management Careers

I completed my PhD in biochemistry and molecular genetics at University of Virginia, Charlottesville.  For my post-doctoral studies, I joined the cell biology department at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York. Since January 2015, I am working as a clinical coordinator at the Clinical Trials Office,  MSKCC. As a study coordinator I handled various aspects of managing a clinical trial, both therapeutic and non-therapeutic,  including patient management, data science and regulatory affairs while maintaining constant communication with  industry sponsors regarding the progress of the trials. Recently I accepted the position of a Sr. Clinical Research Associate in the same department where in addition to managing clinical trials I also play leadership roles related to designing, monitoring and correction of workflows and supervising clinical coordinators.

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Hey, DNA – what can you tell me?

in SciBiz by

DNA. A mere three-letter word. The power that lies within though is beyond phenomenal, and we have only started to unwind the marvels of its intricacies. We have come a long way since the discovery of the DNA in 1953. We undertook the ambitious human genome project in 1990[1], which took us 13 years and 3 billion dollars to complete. Only 20 years have gone by and today, we are already planning $100-$1000 genomes.

The tiny 0.1% difference that exists between you and me is the magic that makes you, you and me, me. It defines the colors of our eyes, the different shades of our skin, our differing hair tones and whether we have that little dimple when we smile. Isn’t it remarkable that this tiny difference is all that makes us so distinctly different and so beautifully unique?

So much packed within the DNA. So much we know about it and yet so little do we.

But what use is all this sequencing and technology if we can’t use it to better our lives and of those around us? This article is a modest attempt to condense and highlight the various types of genetic tests and how we can use them. Isn’t it time to listen to what our DNA is telling us?

There are different things our DNA can tell us, as we grow within the comfort of our mother’s womb, and as we grow through adulthood and become parents ourselves. At all these stages, we can ask our DNA different questions – and get different answers.

Even before we plan to conceive a baby, we can choose to check whether we are “carriers” of a specific genetic mutation, one that we might pass on to our children (carrier testing)[2]. Carriers may not be symptomatic of the disease, and hence, these traits can secretly pass through generations without ever being detected, much like a silent volcano under the sea. Carrier testing is relevant to individuals with a family history of a certain genetic disorder. Even though there are hundreds of recessive genetic disorders, most of them are very rare. However, certain ethnic groups have an increased risk of specific genetic conditions[3]. Individuals who are carriers have a 25% chance, in each pregnancy, of having a child with that specific autosomal recessive disorder[4].

If DNA gives a discomforting answer in the carrier test, a couple can opt for preimplantation testing[5] or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)[6]. PGD is a specialized technique used during embryo selection during in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF involves removing egg cells from a woman’s ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm cells in vitro (outside the body). In preimplantation testing, genetic mutations are tested for in a small number of cells taken from these embryos. Only unaffected embryos are implanted in the uterus to initiate a pregnancy, lowering the risk of having a child with a particular genetic or chromosomal disorder[7].

Once in the 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, prenatal testing[8] may be performed, if there is an increased risk that the fetus might have a genetic or chromosomal disorder.  Prenatal tests can help identify whether your baby is more or less likely to have inherited genetic disorders[9].

9 months later, a baby enters the world. As precious as it is, so much more important is to do newborn screening[10]. Internationally recognized as an important preventative health program, newborn screening aids in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of certain genetic, metabolic and even infectious congenital disorders, significantly reducing disease development, associated disabilities and mortality rates. Although the newborn disorders being screened varies between hospitals, these four most common genetic diseases are often included:  1. Phenylketonuria (PKU), 2. Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH), 3. Galactosemia (GAL) and 4. Sickle Cell Disease.

The answers we get from prenatal and newborn screening have helped dramatically reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality of babies with genetic disorders all around the world.

Disorders sometimes only appear after birth, often at later stages in life. Predictive testing[11] can help identify mutations that increase a person’s risk of developing genetic disorders, such as certain types of cancer. Presymptomatic testing[12] may aid in determining whether a person will develop a genetic disorder before any signs or symptoms appear. These tests are not to be taken lightly due to the implications of their results. The answers from these DNA tests can provide information about a person’s risk of developing a particular disease and help to make informed decisions about future medical care.

Sometimes, particular conditions can only be predicted or suspected based on physical signs and symptoms. That’s when diagnostic testing[13] can act as an additional tool to identify and confirm a diagnosis. The results from this type of testing can help one make informed choices about health and management of the disorder, much like carrier testing.

Talking about health and management, DNA testing like pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing[14] is challenging our current medical paradigm of “one size fits all”. Naturally, not all of us react the same way to medications (think alcohol or caffeine). In fact, drugs can be ineffective for up to 95% of patients (for example. high cholesterol medications)[15]. Knowing our DNA and what it encodes for might just be a step closer in personalizing medicine specific to any individual. Optimizing treatments based on our DNA eliminates the need for the long and tiring “trial and error” methods of prescribing, reduces the risk of potential side effects and improves therapeutic efficacy.

As much as our DNA can guide us in planning and managing our lives better, it also offers some playful information, making us connect with our past – centuries of our past, embedded somewhere in the DNA we carry within. Genetic ancestry testing[16] offers great predictions about where an individual’s ancestors might have come from and about relationships between families. As smart as it is, DNA can sometimes leave traces too – specific patterns of genetic variations are frequently found in people of similar backgrounds and the more closely related we are (families, populations, etc.), the more patterns of variations we would share. However, there are various limitations as well due to a limited database of genetic variants on specific ethnicities and human migrations, for example.

All these give an idea of how serious answers may be as we seek our genes.

However, DNA certainly has a fun side to it too. Why not have fun with some “Recreational DNA testing”? The triple helix is not always serious, for it is able to tell if you might have athletic genes, can recommend a great wine for you, guide your fat loss and even help in optimizing your sleep, to name a few.

Throughout our lives, we can keep asking our DNA for answers. Some of which we might get and some of which we will not. Some of which are serious, some of which are silly, some of which are just reflecting its playful nature and some, it’s secret side. DNA is after all, only a part of us and we are what it is.


About Mathura:

Mathura Shanmugasundaram, PhD is a geneticist who is deeply passionate about personalized medicine and believes in using advances in science and technology to optimize and improve healthcare.

 

 

Editors: Sayantan Chakraborty, PhD, Rituparna Chakrabarti, PhD and Sushama Sivakumar, PhD

Illustration: Fuzzy Synapse


[1] https://www.genome.gov/10001772/all-about-the–human-genome-project-hgp/

[2] “Genetic Screening Tests – Autosomal Recessive Diseases”. OB/GYN Specialists of Palm Beaches, P.A.

[3] The American college of Obstericians and Gynecologists, Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions, Number 691, March 2017

[4] NIH Genetics Home Reference: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/

[5] Brezina PR and Kutteh WH (2015). Clinical applications of preimplantation genetic testing. BMJ 19:350, 7611.

[6] Harper JC. Introduction. Harper JC, Delhanty JDA, Handyside AH, eds. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. London, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2001. 3-12.

[7] American pregnancy association: http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis/

[8] Latendresse G and Deneris A (2015). An update on current prenatal testing options: first trimester and noninvasive prenatal testing. 60: 24-36.

[10] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/newbornscreening/

[11] Mitchell PB et al., Predictive and diagnostic genetic testing in psychiatry. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010; 33(1): 225-43

[12] Genetic Diagnosis and Testing in Clinical Practice. 2006. Clinc Med Res (4): 123-129.

[13] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/773832-overview

[14] Relling MV and Evans WE (2015). Pharmacogenomics in the clinic.  Nature (52): 43-350.

[15] Schork, N (2015). Personalized medicine: Time for one-person trials. Nature. 520, 609-611.

[16] Kirkpatrick BE and Rashkin MD (2017). Ancestry Testing and the Practice of Genetic Counseling. J Genet Couns. 26: 6-20.

The contents of Club SciWri are the copyright of PhD Career Support Group for STEM PhDs (A US Non-Profit 501(c)3, PhDCSG is an initiative of the alumni of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The primary aim of this group is to build a NETWORK among scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs).

This work by Club SciWri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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